Sunday, 16 November 2014

Smithfield Market, Clerkenwell, and the tale of two horse thieves

Smithfield Market looking towards the south.
Giltspur Street is to the right of the picture. [1]

Smithfield and St John's Street Road running away to the north from the market featured in the lives of at least four of the branches in my 19th Century family tree.  At the time these twigs were all quite unconnected with each other, and my forebears could well have passed by each other in the street without having in the least noticed each others presence or significance.

 The earliest event at Clerkenwell and Smithfield, London's main meat market, that I have come across, not entirely surprisingly involves John Kirby Moore, a young farmer from Badley in Suffolk. 
His sister, Sarah later became one of my great great great grandmothers, and when John Moore died without having any children of his own, he left her his papers and other artefacts, which have in turn come down to me through the family.

John Kirby Moore in 1864 [2] 

As a boy growing up in Badley in Suffolk just outside Stowmarket, where John would have been known to Joseph Pennington for many years. 

Pennington, a very able  land surveyor who produced a magnificent map of Ipswich, and was the Steward for Lord Ashburnham, at Holly Oak Farm Combs, the next village to Badley, where John Kirby Moore appears to have worked as a teenager.

Joseph Pennington would have collected the rent from John's father James Moore, who was a tenant of Lord Asburnham at Badley Mill. At some point before 1817 Pennington moved to his employers main estate at Godstone.

During 1817 John appears to have been sent to work for Pennington at his farm at Lee Place, Godstone in Surrey, quite prossibly in order to gain wider experience.  Godstone was the country seat of Lord Ashburnham who also owned about 3,500 acres including Badley between Stowmarket and Needham Market.

Lee Place, Godstone, home of Joseph Pennington.

During John Moore's time at Godstone the theft took place of a valuable cart horse.

Morning Post - Tuesday 9th December 1817
Guildhall — Horse Stealing. — Thomas Wale and Charles Wood were yesterday charged before the Sitting Alderman with stealing a horse, the property of J. Pennington, Esq. of Godstone, in the county of Surrey, They were committed for trial. [3]"

Either Joseph Pennington, or John appear to have realised at once that because the 5th of December was a Friday, there was be a very high probability that the thief would try to sell the horse at Smithfield Market, which held horse sales every Friday.  John immediately set off for London, which was about 23 miles away, acting on their hunch that the thief would try to sell the horse on as quickly as possible. 

This turned out to be the case as the following report of the subsequent trial at the Old Bailey in January 1818 demonstrates.

179. CHARLES WOOD and JOHN VALE were indicted for stealing, on the 5th of December, at St. Sepulchre's, one gelding, price 35l. , the property of Joseph Pennington.
THOMAS HOOK. I am servant to Mr. Joseph Pennington, who lives at Godstone. On the night of the 4th of December I put the horses up in the yard, and fastened the gate at eight o'clock, the bay gelding was safe then. I returned next morning, about a quarter before six o'clock, and the gelding was gone-it came home afterwards. I am certain it was my master's.
Cross-examined by MR. ANDREWS. Godstone is about twenty-two or twenty-three miles from Smithfield. There were four horses in the yard at night, and I only found three there the next morning. My master has had the gelding ten years; I have lived six years and a half with him, and have had the care of the gelding during that time, and knew it again.
WILLIAM COOPER. I am servant to Mr. Pennington. On the 5th of December, about five o'clock in the morning, I went to my master's premises, the yard gate stood open, there are two yard gates-the horses were in the corn-yard; the gelding was gone.
Cross-examined by MR. ANDREWS. I have seen the horse since; it has a white foot, and a bald face; I should know it among a thousand.
JOHN KIRBY MOORE. I manage Mr. Pennington's farm for him, he is the only occupier of it. Hook informed me that the gelding was gone, and I immediately came to London; I have known the horse about eighteen months; I saw it again in Giltspur-street, in the possession of John Ayres. After some conversation with him about it, the prisoner, Wood, came up, I asked him if he was the owner of the horse, he said, Yes. I asked the price, he said 24l. I told him it was too much, and asked him its age; he said it was six years old. I told him it was more; he said it was not more than seven. He then offered it to me for 23l. I said it was too much.
Q. Did he say any thing more about the horse-A. He said he knew it very well, and would put it into a cart to shew me how it would go. He said it was a Suffolk bred horse. I went for a constable, and on my return I met Ayres, leading the horse, in Smithfield, and Wood near him. I asked Wood if he would take 20l. for it - He said 22l. was the lowest-the constable came and took him, and I gave the landlord charge of the horse. After the examination before the magistrate I took the horse back into the country, the two witnesses saw it-it was the same horse. When I got into the country, I and Jones went and apprehended the prisoner, Vale, at Heaver, in Kent, on a Sunday, where he lived.
Cross-examined. I never saw the prisoner, Wood, until I saw him in Smithfield. I went up to him as if I meant to buy the horse-it stood alone, in the care of Ayres. Wood asked 24l. for it. I was gone about twenty-five minutes for the constable, I returned, and talked with him again about the horse.
Cross-examined by MR. ADOLPHUS. Q. Did you give him any reason, at first, to suppose you suspected him - A. None at all.
JOHN AYRES . I assist the hostler at the Green Dragon, in Smithfield. On the 5th of December, between six and seven o'clock in the morning, I saw the horse in the stable, I did not see the man bring it in, but I saw the prisoners in conversation about it. Wood asked me to go and have something to drink with him, and took me to the Denmark's Head, in the Old Bailey-Vale was there. Wood asked me what time the horse-market began; I told him about one or two o'clock, and not before. He said he had bought the horse of Vale, and wished to sell it again-Vale was present. Wood said he gave Vale 18l.10s. for it; he then put his hand into his pocket, and said, I have got to give you two shillings to make up the 18l. 10s. and he gave him two shillings-Vale took it. I asked Vale who he bought the horse of; he said he bought it coming along the road that morning. I asked him if he knew the man of whom he bought it, he said no, only that he told him his name was James Buckle. I told him I thought it was a stolen horse, and if it was, I thought he had brought it to a very likely market to have it owned. Wood asked me to lead the horse into the market for him, and said he would satisfy me for my trouble - I said I would; he then told me to get him ready, and tie his tail up to take him into the market. We came out of the public-house, Vale asked the way to Pimlico, I told him, and they both went down the Old Bailey. I did not see Wood again until he came to have the horse in the market, at the time Mr. Moore was asking me the price of it - I heard him ask the price. He has spoken correctly.
Cross-examined by MR. ARABIN. I am not much acquainted with horse selling. I was not in the way when the horse came. Wood took me out of the stable to the Old Bailey, he seemed anxious to sell the horse; he said he bought it of Vale, Vale set close to me and heard him.
Cross-examined by MR. ANDREWS. I do not know who brought the horse, I first saw Wood at a little after seven o'clock; we found Vale in the Old Bailey; I had a bad opinion of the business, and said, before them both, that I thought if it was prigged, he had brought it to a wrong place. After this Wood still went to Smithfield with me - He never attempted to go away; when Moore came I called him to me, and he was taken. Wood said he bought it of Vale before and after I had said I thought it was stolen, and still desired me to take it to Smithfield.
STEPHEN VINCE . I am hostler at the Green Dragon, in Giltspur-street. On the morning of the 5th of December, the prisoner, Vale, alone, brought the gelding; I was opening the gates to let a waggon in, about a quarter to six o'clock - He called for the hostler, and I answered; he said he wanted to put the horse in the stable to bait; I shewed him the way - He led it in, and tied it up himself. Wood came about seven o'clock, looked at the horse, and had him ran up and down the yard; he asked Vale if he, (Vale,) was not the man who bought the horse that morning, he said he was. I asked Vale if the horse was for sale, he said, Yes. I asked him if he knew who he bought it of? He said the man told him his name, but he did not know where he lived - He did not tell me his name; he said he bought it at Kennington turnpike, coming to town. After that he went into the yard, and returned in about half an hour, Wood had not been then; he ordered his horse a quartern of corn, which I gave him. Wood came down as if he was a stranger, and asked the questions which I related before; he said, "you are the man who bought the horse, if you had not bought it I should." I said, "if you will give him something for his bargain, he will let you have it." They appeared to be strangers to each other. They talked together; the horse was ran up and down the yard, and afterwards taken into the stable again. I did not hear them make any agreement.
Cross-examined by MR. ARABIN. Q. You told all this before the magistrate-A. Yes; I will not say I told it word for word. No person has been talking to me about it. Wood is not the man who brought the horse.
Cross-examined by MR. ADOLPHUS. Q. You said Vale was the man-A. I will not swear to him.
COURT. Q. You have sworn before the magistrate that the person who was dressed as Vale was before the magistrate, was the man, what do you believe now of Vale-A. To the best of my belief he is the man; I have not the least doubt of his being the man.
JURY. Q. How did the horse appear when it came into the stable - A. It appeared as if it had come off the road, being very thin and dirty. It had a broken halter on.
JAMES JONES. I am constable of Edenbridge, Kent. I have known the prisoners from their childhood; they lived at Heaver, which is twenty-seven miles from town, and were very well acquainted. Edenbridge is twentysix miles from town. Godstone is between Heaver and London, but not the nearest way. I was applied to on Sunday, the 17th of December, by Moore, and took Vale into custody. I told him I was not certain what the charge was against him. As we were coming to town, he said he did not steal the horse; I had said something about a horse, but I do not remember what. He said he did not take the horse, nor yet sell it.
Cross-examined. I am a constable in the neighbourhood. I had not heard of the horse having been stolen.
Cross-examined by MR. ANDREWS. Wood lived at Edenbridge, and had a very good character; he is a collar maker.
MR. MOORE re-examined. The value of the gelding is 35l.
WOOD'S Defence. I did not steal it.
VALE'S Defence. I know nothing of it.
WOOD - GUILTY. - DEATH . Aged 28.
VALE - GUILTY. - DEATH . Aged 28.
Recommended to Mercy .
London Jury, before Mr. Recorder.

From the description below, it would appear that the Green Dragon Inn
was situated at the bottom right-hand side of the map above.

“Green-Dragon-Inn, Giltspur-St.— at the N. end of the Compter, or the first gateway on the R. a few yards from Newgate-st. towards Smithfield.”[5]

An account of the Sessions was soon after printed in the Morning Post.

Morning Post - Wednesday 28 January 1818

OLD BAILEY.— Tuesday, Jan. 27. This day the Sessions terminated, and the RECORDER proceeded to pass sentence of death upon the following persons, capitally convicted:- Mary Alder, for stealing in dwelling-house- Joseph Thompson- for privately stealing in a shop - Ann Jones, for stealing in a dwelling-house -- Moses Daniels and John Smith for house- breaking-Charles Wood and John Vale, for horse-stealing-Lawrence Denley for stealing in a dwelling- house -- John Norton for burglary -- George Scott and Israel Chapman, for high way robbery— William White and John Read, for sheep stealing Mary Gildersleve, for stealing in a dwelling house— Wm. Kelly and Thomas Spicer, for forgery — Thomas Casey, for sheep stealing — William Henry Rawlinson and John Rawlinson, the younger, for stealing from a lag-boat on the River — Henry Hall, for stealing in a dwelling-house — Ann Cale, for privately stealing in a shop --William Grace and Charles Sims, for burglary — Charles Russell, for housebreaking — James Bennett (a boy), for stealing in a dwelling house -Matthew Sullivan (a boy, only 11 years of age., John Lucas and William Green, for stealing in a dwelling-house-Daniel Stockwell, for burglary— Rose O'Hara, Margaret Humphries, and Hannah Brian, for highway robbery -arid John Farmer, for privately stealing. Judgment upon William Bayley and Robert Spencer, for a burglary, was respited in consequence of a point of law having been reserved for the consideration of the twelve Judges. An immense number were sentenced to transportation, some for life, and others for seven and fourteen years. The DUELLISTS  — Messrs. Theodore O'Callaghan, Thomas Joseph Phelan, and Charles Newbolt, were ordered to be fined a shilling, and to be confined three calendar months in his Majesty's gaol of Newgate-. The Sessions were adjourned to Wednesday, Feb. 18.
The sentences next went to the Prince Regent for ratification, and for most this would inevitably be confirmation that they would hang.

Morning Chronicle - Friday 20 February 1818

RECORDER'S REPORT.-Yesterday the Recorder made a Report to the Prince Regent of the following prisoners, capitally convicted at the last Sessions, Charles Wood and John Vale, for horse-stealing; John Lucas, Wm. Green, Matthew Sullivan, Henry Hall, Mary Gildersleeves, Lawrence Denley, Ann Jones, Mary Alder, and James Bennett, for stealing goods in a dwelling-house; Ann Cale and Joseph Thompson, for stealing goods privately in a shop; Moses Daniels and John Smith, for house-breaking; Win. Grace, for burglary; John Norton and Daniel Stockwell, for a like offence; George Scott and Israel Chapman, for a highway robbery; Wm. White, John Reed, and Thomas Casey, for sheep-stealing; William Kelly and 'Thomas Spicer, for uttering forged Bank notes; William Henry Rawlinson and John Rawlinson, jun. for stealing goods from a boat on the navigable river Thames; Charles Sims, for burglary; Rose O'Hara, Margaret Humphreys, and Hannah Briant, for a robbery on James Redman; Charles Russell, for house-breaking; and John Farmer, for stealing goods privately in a shop.- William Kelly, Thomas Spicer, William Henry Rawlinson' and John Rawlinson the younger, were ordered for execution on Wednesday next the 25th instant.- The others were respited during pleasure.

If you have found this blog, you probably have had some connection with the events, places and people described. I would love to hear from you if this is the case. I can be reached at 

[2] Private collection.
[3] Morning Post - Tuesday 09 December 1817
[4] Old Bailey Proceedings Online (, version 7.0, 31 December 2013), January 1818, trial of CHARLES WOOD JOHN VALE (t18180114-13).
[5] Topography of London: Giving a Concise Local Description Of, and Accurate ... By John Lockie, published 1810, and the map is extracted from
[6] Morning Post - Wednesday 28 January 1818
[7] Morning Chronicle - Friday 20 February 1818

A little bit of India in Hertfordshire

Balls Park in Hertfordshire, former home of Edward Harrison.

Many of my friends and readers are interested in Indian history, and it would be a safe assumption that most of them would expect to look towards India to find buildings and artefacts that are linked to India's history.  In fact there are a surprisingly large number of surviving buildings in Britain which are directly linked to India. Balls Park, just outside and to the south east of Hertford is one such place.

Balls Park is a house largely built out of the profits of the East India Company trade with India and China, and demonstrates just how well it was possible for employees of the East India Company to do, if only they could survive long enough to retire to Britain.

Harrison would become Governor of Madras, and his decisions were to give my great x 5 grandfather John De Morgan, the lucky break he needed to get his career under way.

Edward Harrison was born on the 3rd of December 1674, very probably at Balls Park.  The estate is thought to have been bought by his grandfather Sir John Harrison, a Royalist wealthy financier and customs official, who constructed the original house between 1637 and 1640, possibly to the designs of Nicholas Stone the king’s master-mason.

Balls Park from Chauncy History [1]

The house was re-modelled and extended a number of times by Richard Harrison, Edward's father and by Edward Harrison, himself following his retirement.

[1] From

Great Great Great Grandfather, What did you do in the war?


Oxford Loyal Volunteer Jan.1.1799,
by published by T. Taylor, High Street, Oxford [1]

Writing this blog in 2014 I am acutely aware that as is the case for almost everybody else in Europe, it is the 100 years anniversary of the First World War. Being greater than half a century old, I   remember meeting and having enormous respect for many of the veterans of that conflict.

Was this however really the First World War?

With the ever improving access now available to researchers into family history, and especially the fantastic work of the British Library in scanning and releasing the local newspapers from former years, it is now possible if you are really lucky to explore these earlier conflicts in great detail.

This exploring has led me to question if the 1914-18 was really the First World War, or even the Greatest War.  It was certainly very serious, and had enormous impacts.

Through my research into my own forebears, I have been struck by just how comprehensive the mobilisations for some of the earlier wars have been, and just how my forebears had been affected, and also how many of them had active roles in these earlier wars.

For my family, 1914-18 was certainly not the first World War, as they had already been involved in at least two previous global conflicts in 1759, and again in the 1790's that both would have merited that title. In the blogs, I will explore some of these peoples lives in more detail.

My Great Great Great Grandfather Henry Hervey Baber by 1798 already had two brothers who were already serving in the East India Company in India, and another who had just set out for India as a Civil Servant, and who by the end of the year would be heavily involved in fighting out there.

Like so many families in those days, one son, in this case the eldest, Henry was destined for the church.  He was studying Theology at Oxford, so that it was with some surprise that I came across the following extract in a Memorandum that he kept detailing the major events of his life.

It is not quite what you might expect to find, when you research an ancestor who was a clergyman. However this was a revolutionary war, and against an enemy who was intent on bringing down society and the church as they knew it.

In his memorandum Henry recorded...


May 6   Enrolled myself in the Oxford University Volunteers – a private in Captn Scowen’s Company

July 5   The Oxford University Volunteers had their colours presented by Lady Harcourt – a sermon preached in Chrischurch Meadow by Rev’d Mr: Blackstone of New Coll. – Shocking wet day. – under arms from 10 o’Clock to 4, without standing at ease once – severe duty.

The following account of the proceedings of the day are contained in the Reading Mercury published on Monday 9th of July 1798

OXFORD, SATURDAY, July 7. On Thursday morning last, the day appointed for the ceremony of presenting the colours, given by his Grace the Duke of Portland, to the Oxford University Volunteers, at half past eleven o'clock the battalion was formed in Christ Church Meadow, where a pavilion was erected for the reception of the Countess Harcourt &c. The ground was kept the City Armed Association forming an extensive line on each side of the pavilion, and the exterior parts were kept by a troop of the 11th regiment of dragoons, quartered at Abingdon, who obligingly gave their services this occasion. Upon Lady Harcourt's coming on the ground the battalion presented arms, then an order was given for the right company to prepare escort for the colours, which, preceded by the Band, advanced towards the pavilion, the line formed a close column and advanced in rear of the right company. The whole ordered arms when a sermon, suitable to the occasion, from the 4th chap. Nehemiah, verse 14,-- And I looked, and rose up, and said unto the nobles, and to the rulers, and to the rest of the people, Be ye not afraid of them: remember the Lord, which is great and terrible, and fight; for your brethren, your sons, and your daughters, your wives, and your houses," was delivered by the Rev. Charles Blackstone, Fellow of New College. After the sermon and consecration of the colours, Lady Harcourt addressed Colonel Coker- "Impressed with the sense of the honour this day conferred upon me, by the Oxford University Volunteers desiring to receive their colours from my hands, I must beg you, Sir, to accept, and to express for me to the regiment, my grateful thanks, with my warmest Wishes for the happiness and prosperity of so respectable a corps.
"The University of Oxford may proudly boast its Founder was a Hero; the Immortal Alfred was equally renowned for his military achievements, and for his patronage of learning within these sacred shades, Edward, and Henry (names ever dear to the glory of England) caught the flame that led them on to conquest, the haughty spirit of France bowed beneath their arms, and now when again she dares our country, and menace us with invasion, this venerable seat of learning finds its brave defenders in those who have here been trained in the love of every art, of every science that dignities mankind. "Long may Oxford flourish, the pride of England, the admiration of the world ! may the patriotic ardour that glows in your bosoms animate every Briton ! may every hand and heart unite to guard our Religion, our King, our Liberty, and our Laws; and may the Almighty Power, who alone can give success, protect the glorious cause."
Her Ladyship then gave the colours to the Colonel, who presented them to the two senior Lieutenants; the Colonel then addressed Lady Harcourt?" MADAM,
"You have this day shewn, that it belongs to the character of refined and dignified benevolence to adopt the language of gratitude while it confers obligation.
" But in whatever manner you may be pleased to speak of your own benignity, I should be guilty of the highest injustice to the honourable men that surround me and to own feelings, if I did not express our most grateful sense of that goodness with which you have condescended to grace and to dignify our ceremony; or, if omitted to make you our warmest acknowledgements for those gracious terms of commendation and praise, which have given not only but a celebrity our undertaking.
" The array of arms and of warlike preparation in a place hitherto devoted to the milder purposes of science and religion, announce the existence of some uncommon occasion of alarm for the welfare of our country.
"An extensive and powerful nation, having thrown off its allegiance Society, to human nature, and to Heaven, has declared hostilities against all the valuable interests and the general happiness of mankind. Under the baneful standard of anarchy and irreligion, it has attacked and destroyed the fairest establishments of human wisdom, to substitute in their place the depravities of corruption and the miseries of despotism. This country, this happy country, whose religion is purity, whole liberty is reason, and whose laws are the union of wisdom, of equity and of mercy, this country so blessed and so distinguished, could not fail to excite the hatred and to provoke the malice of those enemies of mankind; in the fury of their malignity they have daringly, but, I trust most vainly, decreed our destruction and overthrow. You have, Madam, with a most persuasive energy, pointed out to us the glorious conduct that now becomes us as Britons: and you have enforced it the appropriate examples of the brightest characters that adorn our history. In the revered name of the venerable founder, not only of this distinguished seat of learning and piety, but also of the brightest system of civil polity that ever appeared the world, we are called to the protection of our liberties, our religion, and our laws; we are summoned to defend, the example of his valour, the excellent constitution we owe to his wisdom. "In this great and momentous cause we have this day set up and consecrated our standards. "When I look to the noble person to whose liberality are indebted for them, whole protection and patronage is our peculiar boast, I consider them the banners of loyalty, patriotism, and of religion and when I look to the amiable hand from which we received them, I regard them as the ensigns of all the softer and more endearing interest and affections of our nature.
" Turning to the corps, the Colonel proceeded: "To your care, my much honoured companions in arms, to your protection are to be consided these Banners so sacred, so dignified, so endeared. " And when I reflect on the manly and spirited zeal with which you have Stood forward in obedience to the calls of your country; when I reflect on your readiness to quit for the public safety those stations in which you were placed to cultivate and to adorn the community, my heart feels big with proud expectation and hope that you will do justice to the important and honourable trust. Nay, I will not content myself with the cold and doubtful expressions of hope, I will adopt a more just and decided language, I will assert with confidence you will by your conduct at all times evince and confirm, that you have this day's solemnity most awfully and religiously devoted yourselves to the cause of your Sovereign, your Country, and your God. And may that Almighty power, whose creatures we are, in his divine goodness, prosper our humble but ardent endeavours to render ourselves the instruments of his glory and the welfare of our country.

Broad Street Oxford by Rowlandson in about 1809.
" The battalion then formed a line, the escort advanced and pasted in front of it, the line presented arms; the senior Lieutenants then delivered the colours to the two junior Lieutenants, the band playing God save the King" during the ceremony of delivery; the escort resumed its situation. The battalion then passed in review before the Colonel, performing their manoeuvres, and concluded with feu de joye; then passing in review with the Colonel at their head, before Lady Harcourt, they left the ground, and afterwards formed the Broadstreet, when the right company formed an escort and marched in front, the line presenting arms ; the escort then proceeded to lodge the colours.

Christchurch Meadow under a stormy sky.
It can have looked little different in 1798.
The regularity, exactness, and promptitude with which this newly associated body went through the different manoeuvres, would have done honour to the most veteran corps, and though the day was not so propitious as could be wished, the ladies were amply recompensed with a very splendid ball the evening. Earl Harcourt, Right Hon. Wm. Wyndham, Secretary at War, the Rev. the Vice-Chancellor, and many Ladies of distinction, accompanied Lady Harcourt in the pavilion; several temporary stands were crowded with ladies and gentlemen, and a more numerous assemblage of persons, without the smallest confusion or accident happening, has seldom been witnessed on any occasion.

History does not record if Henry took part in any further parades, or if the soaking that he had received that day put him off further soldiering.

On December the 16th 1798 he was ordained a Deacon by the Bishop of Lincoln in Buckden, and in February 1799 he left Oxford to take up a curacy at Ibstock in Leicestershire.

In August 1803 he recorded a second warlike activity.

"reached Ibstock in the evening -- held a meeting at Ibstock on Monday & harangued the people to volunteer their services in defence of their Country. 100 Volunteers enrolled."This event was almost certainly brought about by the restarting of the "Great French War" as it was described later in the 19th Century, that had been halted by the Peace of Amiens signed on the 25th of March 1802, and which had ended on the 18th of May 1803.  This was the only gap in a war that lasted from 1793 until 1814.

Henry Baber went on to become Assistant Librarian at the British Library in 1807, and only retired as Keeper of the Printed Books in 1837. Perhaps it is somehow fitting that it was the British Library that has enabled me to find out so much about his life and those of my other forebears.

Henry went out to Munich in 1814 on a mission for the British Library shortly after Napoleon had been exiled to Elba.  Napoleon's return to France forced Henry to cut short the journey, and he had a hazardous and exciting journey back to Britain via Antwerp often travelling on the same roads that the mobilising Austrian, Prussian and Russians were moving in the lead up to the Battle of Waterloo.

Sent back to France, by the Library in the immediate aftermath of the Battle, he was one of the first civilians into Paris in 1815.  In time I will post blogs on those events too.

If you have found this blog, you probably have had some connection with the events, places and people described. I would love to hear from you if this is the case. I can be reached at

[1]  From Sanders of Oxford Website