Sunday, 8 January 2017

The Great.... Aunt's Tale: Charlotte Baber

The first page of Charlotte Baber's letter to Francis Fowke.[1]

Please click on the image for a larger version.

When we read about our forebears adventures as they set off around the World, it is easy to overlook the pain and anxieties that must have been felt by those left behind; parents, grandparents, sisters, brothers, as well as former friends and acquaintances.

One of the saddest effects created by so many young men leaving for the Navy, Army or the colonies, however, was on all of the girls they left behind, their sisters, and the sisters of their acquaintances, with whom those boys had often grow up, and who they might well have expected to have  married in the fullness of time.

In my own Baber family tree, I have many such maiden "sisters" or "great aunts."

This is the story of just one of them, Charlotte Dorothea Baber (born circa 1750 - died 1814) who until a few days ago had existed for me as only a name set down on a few scribbled family trees from the 1880's, a will, and possibly her mortal remains in the crypt of Sunninghill Church.

As is often the case, with these chance discoveries, I stumbled onto the briefest mention of her in a website of Welsh Biographies, when looking for something else completely.

“How much longer Davies remained under the hospitable Walsh roofs I have been unable to confirm, but by good chance another letter in the Fowke Mss. (Ms. Eur. D.11 no. 17) tells us of Davies's situation in 1780. This letter, headed Wargrave, May 10th 1780, was written by a Miss C. D. Baber to her 'Dear Friend' Francis Fowke, whom it took just under a year to reach in India. It is eight pages of news, social chit-chat and sermonising from an old and close friend. 'Newly imported from the Metropolis, where I have been resident for these 3 months past in the House with my friend, Lady W. Wynn', Charlotte Baber had arrived back at her home in Wargrave (the family having recently sold Sunninghill Park near Ascot) when, to quote her own words, 'I saw Tutor Davies he looks as Gentle as ever. We talked you over I am glad to find Mr. Davies is so well situated he has the care of Master Dawson, son to Lord Darterry (sic). Lord D. is a man of real worth; and will I dare say esteem Mr. Davies according to his merits'.” [2]

Although the author of the article dismisses her letter as "news, social chit-chat and sermonising from an old and close friend", I thought that this was far to good an opportunity to miss, as it was going to be almost the only opportunity that I am ever likely to have to find out anything about Charlotte and her life.

Aliki-Anastasia Arkomani, of the British Library reference service was extraordinarily kind and efficient, and within hours of my initial request, I had a scan of the entire letter.

I had of course at that time, no idea what to expect to find in the letter.  However as I worked down its contents, I was amazed to discover just how much information, was contained in one single letter. It held a cornucopia of information, and of interest at all levels.

Here was a lady of about thirty years of age, still a spinster, and in those days obviously reaching an age where if she did not soon enter into matrimony, she will inevitably have to face her future as a old maid.

Her brother Edward  (1746-1827) had left for India in 1762, when she was about twelve, and was still out in the East. She was almost certainly unaware that he had in fact already left India due to increasing ill health in January 1780, and was on board "Het Lam", a Dutch East Indiaman, which meant that he would not reach England until January 1781.

Francis Fowke, by John Opie, Radnorshire Museums.

The letter was addressed to Francis Fowke, who had set out for India in 1773.   As the letter makes clear, Francis had clearly been a close childhood friend to Charlotte.  

Was she hoping that he still retained an affection for her?

Had she been waiting all these years, hoping against hope that he might arrive back home for her?

Because her writing is so good, I am going to post first the remaining seven pages of the letter, and then I will insert my transcription of the letter.

Into the transcript I have added end-notes that will I hope explain some of the background behind the contents of the letter.

Page 2 of Charlotte's Letter

Page 3 of Charlotte's Letter

Page 4 of Charlotte's Letter

Page 5 of Charlotte's Letter

Page 6 of Charlotte's Letter

Page 7 of Charlotte's Letter

Page 8 of Charlotte's Letter

Wargrave May 10th 1780.

Tho’ I have written to my dear Friend by the first ships of this season-yet I cannot suffer this opportunity to slip and not avail myself of it! This Vile War makes the mode of conveying our thought to each other; rest upon a very uncertain system; as our letters are in constant danger of being seized by those vile miscreants the French and Spaniards. This very idea puts such a check upon my inclinations to write; that I feel discouraged, even to take up the pen to my beloved Brother – as I fear some pirate will seize my sentiments, and give my thoughts to the winds, or the seas – tho’ we have hitherto been been successful, as but one of our India Merchant men have been taken; & that I think was the Osterley[3] – whether she had any letters on board for me, either from you, or my Brother is not yet come to my knowledge! If she had, I could not have received them; so must make up my mind, to the disappointment and with Female fortitude bear up against, the evils and calamities of this chequered Life; which abound’s with disruptions of various, kinds & sorts! Happy for you my dear Friend that you dwell in a Land where money seems to grow – for we are all undone in England – our very thought’s are Taxed – the Ministry seem determined to min us-but what have I to do with politics you’ll say – why truly I think I might busy myself in something more advantageous to female oeconomy, than suffer my mind to be agitated about the rise and fall of empire—the matter is, I am just newly imported from the Metropolis, where I have been resident for these 3 month’s past, (in the House with my Friend Lady W: Wynn) [4] whilst I was there;

Lady Williams-Wynn by Joshua Reynolds

I was flung into the company of dis-contents – then who called themselves patriots (a name without a meaning) and from them I learned we were mined, totally mined. – but admit the fact; I shall have neighbour’s faze and thus end’s the chapter upon Politicks. – during my stay in London I made three attempts to see Mr. Walsh [5] – but he was too cruelly inclined to gratify my wishes or too busily employed in restoring Liberty to free born English men, I know not which – but so it came to pass; that I arrived at Wargrave without a sight of him!  I saw Tutor Davies [6] – he looks as Gentle as ever. – we talked you over – I wish you had been within earshot of our discourse I fear to offend your modesty were I to relate all that said about you. – I am sincerely glad to find Mr. Davies is so well situated – he has the care of Master Dawson son to Lord Darterry [7] – Lord D: is a man of real worth; and will I dare say esteem Mr. Davies according to his merits. – your friend Mrs Hewer often makes enquiry after you, & made my Swear to give her Love when I address you!  Mind I have discharged my oath of obligation – I wrote you word Last year that the fair Sophia was departed this life – I wish you were in England (will all my heart) for now would be the Time to gain the widow – for Sophia is dead – Daniel is Dead – and even the good Nut Brown October is dead – or at least she appears to have lost her relish for the juice of the Malt [8] – poor woman I feel for her situation – She look’s like a sparrow that Sitteth alone upon a house top – Warfield is now the most forlorn spot on the Globe

Warfield Park [9]

 – it is the deserted village Goldsmith speaks off – Mr. Davy is still at Westead, but talk’s every day of leaving it – Browning & Cissy in a convent – Mrs. Tighe in London – the doctor get’s money fast – Little Earl eat up with gout, but has set his house in order (not to Die) but to marry, Miss Something the farmer’s daughter. – for my part tho’ I live within seven miles of Warfield, I seldom or Ever visit the place, I think Westminster Abbey would afford me the Sort of Pleasure as Warfield would in its present state. O’ the Days that we have sun “what Billings and Cooing; when Miss Duany & the Doctor were wooing; and Miss Baber [10]  & the Rev’d Mr Isham! [11]  not forgetting the little secret doings between Mr. Francis Fowke & the little Bannette, in fine all the innocent high day of youth; and moral simplicity. – how does your good sister do; I have written her once this season, and if I have time; will take up my pen again to address her! I expect yearly to hear of her marriage – what makes her so cruel to the swains of Bengal!  Are you acquainted with my friend Mr. Davies whom I recommend to your notice – I hope you will like him for his own merits sake – if not remember he is my friend.

The Royal Hospital at Chelsea. The Ranelagh Gardens
 are under the Rotunda on the right.

 – My sister [12] is now in Town Frisking it away at Ranelagh – she writes in great spirits – I wish she may get a Husband these What prospects is the men I know not to be us two delightful virgins remain single! Their want of taste is very conspicuous your relation Mr. Kelsall is married – Miss Latham, still Miss Latham; blest with powers, that would charm a savage Beast, Soften Rocks, or bend the knotted Oak. [13] -- young Mr. Neville your Warfield neighbor, is on the brink of matrimony – he is going to wed Miss Greville; sister to Earl Temple, a beautiful nymph of seventeen with £20,000 at her disposal[14] – old Neville is to leave Billingham [15] and the young couple are to reside there. –the poor Forest Family, whom you must recollect, are still in the same forlorn situation, as they were when you left the Forest! Not a beam of sunshine, to chear [sic] their drooping spirits! If possible, their sky more clouded than ever – having lately lost their younger Brother Captn: Tom Forest. – He died on board a ship at the Last engagement of Rodneys [16] – his youth was their only hope – to him they looked up; to relieve their wretched situation – how uncertain are all human means & give us comfort – ‘tis heaven alone that can support the wretched; or give Prosperity to the happy. – let it be our case my dearest friend, to secure by our upright Conduct, the assistance of the almighty. – I must preach to you, who are in the midst of temptation, surrounded on all sides by every [alu??ment]; and in the full career of Life. – keep innocency, and take heed unto the thing that is right; for that shall bring them peace at the Last; when all worldly grandeur fails. – I know y’r heart, and am confident of your good intentions; let not example, which draws, were precepts fail “lead you into error – nor be hasty to get rich – whilst you live retain y’r integrity; for an honest man is the noblest work of God! Don’t despise me for Summonising, for, if I had not your real welfare at heart; I should spare my-self the trouble, of recommending virtue for your imitation! I look upon India-Calcutta in particular to be a horn’d place for youth – how few, that have returned from thence, whose characters will stand the test of enquiry – not even all the Wealth of Indus, which they have been at so much pains to accumulate; can secure them from the contempt of their country men – who justly abhor characters so depraved; I wish you, and my other connections in Bengal; to adopt those principles that do honour to human nature – this is the language I have ever held out to them – and I share reason to believe, it is the language which their own good heart’s have spoken to them in, upon all occasions. – I must now bid God Adieu – having much business in the writing way to finish. – My sincere wishes for your health, and welfare will ever attend you – make my comp’ts to y’r Father – and love to your sister, the muslin she so kindly intended for me, is not come to hand-pray desire she will not give herself any further trouble about it—believe me my dear Friend – yours most

All this family present                                                                    affectionately & sincerely
Their love & good wishes                                                              CD. Baber

What poor Charlotte very probably did not know was that her sermonising was going to fall onto the deafest of ears. 

Francis who was following in a path that his family had been following for the previous four generations at least, with Randall Fowke, his great grandfather, (1673-1745) in Madras, starting out in the Gun Room, then rising through hard work and good fortune to become second in the Council. 

Along the way he had made a fortune through diamond trading.

Francis Fowke's (1716-1800) father, Joseph was another larger than life character, [17] who also made his first fortune in Madras.
Joseph Fowke had been born in Madras and probably first travelled to England in around 1728 with his father. He returned to Madras in 1736 to begin work for the East India Company as a writer.  Here he met Elizabeth Walsh whose father had risen to the rank of third in council. Elizabeth married Fowke in May 1750. [18]

Elizabeth had a brother, called John Walsh, who was also serving in India. Walsh returned to England in 1759, where he had decided to settle himself in retirement. For his last two years in India, John had worked as Secretary to Robert Clive. When he first reached England he bought a house, Hockenhull Hall in Cheshire close to Clive’s own newly acquired estates in Shropshire. [19]

Three years later, John Walsh was keen to move, and in late 1764 he bought Warfield Park, near Bracknell. [20]

John Walsh was uncle to Francis Fowke and his sister Margaret.

It is very probable that it was at Warfield that Charlotte Baber had first met Francis Fowke and her sister Margaret. Presumably it was Margaret who had tried to send Charlotte the missing packet of muslim from India.

Margaret Fowke was present in Benares with her brother Francis, where she met another official, John Benn (1759-1825) who eventually married her shortly after their return to England in 1786. Margaret and John Benn inherited Warfield House from John Walsh after his death.

Benares by William Hodges, courtesy of the British Library.

Joseph Fowke having made his fortune, returned to Britain, only to get through his fortune in very short order, probably through heavy gambling losses. In 1771, he returned to India "to repair his fortunes" where he was once again able to restore his fortunes, by trading at Benares, before returning home once more in 1778. He appears to have then made a subsequent voyage back to India, as he returned home finally in 1788.

Although often pressed to marry an English lady following his return, Joseph was officially unmarried, although it is believed that he like very many of the  other English officials in India at that time had local mistresses, and in some cases wives, with whom they had gone through local weddings, sometimes Hindu weddings, and in other cases, Muslim ones.

Joseph Fowkes subsequently had mistresses in England following his return, one of whom gave birth to an illegitimate daughter Sophy.

It was widely believed at the time that he may have brought at least one of his Indian mistresses home to England.  Joseph Fowkes had a brother who lived in Mamesbury in Wiltshire, who had also served in the East India Company.  He adopted a bastard daughter of his brother Joseph, and would later also look after several more, the children of his nephews Francis Fowke and Will Hollond. [21]

Benares was not part of British India at this time, but was located in the Province of Oude, part of the Moghul Empire. The city was situated on the Ganges, and was at the centre of many of the key trading routes across India.  The East India Company had a trading post there for most of the 18th Century, and it had become a very important location for the EIC, as it also acted as an intelligence post from which to observe the ever changing situation at the Moghul Court at Delhi.

On the 16th August 1775, Francis Fowkes was appointed to Benares and was given Letters of Credence to Rajah Cheyt Sing.  His appointment became one of the many causes of contention within the Calcutta Presidency Council, that was split into factions, siding with and against the Governor, Warren Hastings, with his recall occurring subsequently.  Somehow, he was able to get himself reappointed in 1780 to Benares where he was soon able to amass a considerable fortune through personal trading in drugs, diamonds and as an army contractor.

He also acquired at least one, and possibly more Bibi, and began to have children.

In 1781, Hastings had Francis Fowke removed once again from his post at Benares, however by April 1783, he had regained his post once more.

When Francis Fowke finally left Benares in 1786, he was faced with what to do with his mistresses.

In India in amongst his circle of friends including his cousin Will Hollond, at Dhaka with whom he frequently corresponded, having Indian mistresses was quite routine, as few Englishmen at that time expected to be able to return home, and even if they did they could not hope to return until they were old men in twenty two or more years time.

Will was also assembling his own harem, and the two cousins compared notes in letters of their relative situations. Both hoped against hope to survive long enough to be able to retire to Britain, and both struggled to come to terms with what to do in that event with their mistresses.

That Francis had had more than one is suggested by the following phrase in a letter written by J.P. Hoare "as I have so good an Opinnion" of the last mistress he had taken on from Fowke, that he was prepared to do so again again with another mistress. [22]

If poor Charlotte writing in May 1780, was not already aware of the social mores that applied in India, she was going to be given a major surprise when her brother Edward came home in 1781.  For he was bringing home.

When he wrote on the 21st December 1779 to Warren Hastings to request the use of the Governor's yacht and I should esteem myself highly obliged to you for the use of the yacht to carry us to the ship [23] note how he used "us" not I, and this word almost certainly reflects the fact that he was bringing his daughters Charlotte and Diana, and possibly their mother with him.

Edward who was back in England by early January 1781, will have brought not just the probably unexpected surprise of his sisters, Diana, Charlotte and Mary having nieces, but no doubt the news that Francis Fowke also had a large and growing family of Anglo-Indians in Benares.

In addition to this information, was the fact that Francis Fowke and his father had become involved in a fierce attack on Edward Baber's former boss, friend and patron the Governor, Warren Hastings.

On 19th April 1775 Commual O Deen,[24] an Indian who had previously made accusations against the Governor, came to Warren Hastings at 9 O'Clock in the morning, and with his dress torn and looking pale, and out of breath, saying that Nuncomar and Francis Fowke by threats and duress forced Commual O Deen to sign a petition or arzee, saying that he had paid Hastings 15,000 rupees in bribes over the past three years, and Barwell, 45,000 rupees.

This was to be the start of the very long and complex series of trials, that would lead to the impeachment of Warren Hastings and his appearance at the famous trial in the Houses of Parliament.

As Charlotte's brother Edward, was firmly amongst those who were in Warren Hastings camp, this would have had the effect of cutting off normal friendly relations to the Fowke family.

If as we suspect, Edward had brought home a "family" of mixed raced children, this would not have helped his sister Charlotte's chances of a suitable marriage partner, as has been demonstrated by her letter, social mores in England were increasingly changing away from those that had governed the early 18th Century, where morals were far more lax, especially in the hangover from the Restoration Period in the late 17th Century when there had been a huge amount of license for mistresses and extra-martial affairs.

As for Francis Fowkes.  With the passing of the India Act in 1784, and the changing situation for East India Officials, who were no longer allowed (in principle) to undertake private trading in the blatant way that had previously been expected, the older established families with deep roots in India found that their opportunities for future wealth had been sharply curtailed. He returned to England, and when he did so, he brought quite a few of his offspring home from India.  However, he probably did not bring their mother, or mothers. He was expected and expecting to find a wife in England, but although he is believed to have had several suitable opportunities, he didn't formally marry on his return, until very many years later.

One of his female cousin's on his Hollond side wrote of him that he was, "a blundering lover."

When he did at last marry in England, it was to his long term mistress, an actress, Mary Lowe, who he first set up in a Mayfair house, shortly after his return to England.  Later as Mary began to have the first of fifteen children by Francis, he moved her to a house in Wimbledon.

Twenty four years later Francis Fowke's, Aunt Strachey had no idea of the fact that he had had so many children, such was the secrecy with which he had arranged his life.

Francis bought an estate in Radnorshire and built a large house, Boughrood Castle, by 1817, where his children from both his "families" lived together. Two of his darker mixed race children remained living as "servants" on the property long after his death, in receipt of annuities.

Perhaps Charlotte had had a lucky escape.

She would subsequently go on to live in a number of houses in Berkshire and across the border in Arlesford by 1810 in Hampshire.  She eventually died in the house of her brother, Edward in Park Street, near Grosvenor Square in London in 1814.

[1] British Library: Asia, Pacific and Africa Collections, Private Papers (European Manuscripts), Mss Eur D11 no. 17


 [3] Osterley, was a ship of 758 tons launched on 9th October 1771 by Wells at Deptford. She was on her third voyage for the company when the French frigates Pourvoyeuse and Elizabeth captured her on 21 February 1779.  Her Managing Owner was William Dent, brother of Robert Dent a partner at Childs’ bank.

“By letter from Messrs Edward Parry and Daniel Barwell, passengers on board the ship Osterley, dated Cape of Good Hope 17 May 1779 we are informed of the capture of that ship the 21st February about Latitude 36 degrees near False Bay by two frigates named the Purvoyeuse of 40 guns and Elizabeth of 36 guns. Monsr [St Olen]Commander . The Purvoyeuse carried 26 Eighteen pounders, 2 twenty four pounders and 12 twelve pounders, the Elizabeth carries 24 twelve pounders.
… the French Commodore & his officers also declared that the ship Elizabeth was the property of an English Gentleman now at Fort St George. This information alarms us exceedingly. If the facts can be proved the treachery cannot be too severely punished.

We learn that the Company’s packets were all sunk the morning of the engagement & that after a cruize of eight days, a small French ship, loaded with Negro Slaves from Mozambique bound to Table Bay fell in with the Purvoyeuse, Elizabeth and Osterley, that the Commodore was prevailed upon to permit Messrs Parry, Barwell and two European Sick Seamen, being foreigners to leave the Prize, that they went aboard the vessel above mentioned, on arrival at the Cape the 2nd of March. It was supposed that Captn Rogers and every other person on board the Osterley would be carried to the French Islands when the Cruize was over. The French ship Cruized at almost as high as latitude 38 from the Cape of Infanta & back to Cape Seguilla but the Worthington and Grosvenor escaped & arrived safe at St Helena, the former the 20th of March and the latter the 1st of April. “

The loss of the Osterley caused great controversy in EIC circles, when it was revealed that a British subject John Laurence, resident at Fort St. George owned the Elizabeth. BL IOR L/MAR/B/400G, 22 February 1779. Letter from the ship Duke of Kingston to the EIC, 16 June 1779, London. IOR/R/E/4-868, p. 465.  Information from Pauline Davies.

[4] Almost certainly Lady Charlotte Williams - Wynn. It is not clear why Charlotte Baber spent so long with this family, but in this year, 1780 Lady Charlotte gave birth to Henrietta, her daughter. It is quite possible that the Charlotte Baber was acting as a companion during this period.
Her husband was Sir Watkin Williams-Wynn, 4th Baronet (23 September 1749 – 24 July 1789) who was born in Llanforda, Oswestry.

Charlotte Williams-Wynn was the eldest child of the Prime Minister George Grenville and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of the Tory statesman Sir William Wyndham, Bt. She was related to the two Prime Minister William Pitts through her paternal aunt Hester Grenville who married Pitt the Elder (the 1st Earl of Chatham) and who became mother of William Pitt the Younger. Her mother and father died in 1769 and 1770 respectively, and guardianship of their daughter Charlotte was assumed by George's elder brother, Richard Grenville-Temple, 2nd Earl Temple. In December 1771, she married Sir Watkin Williams-Wynn, 4th Baronet, and became known as Lady Williams-Wynn. The couple had eight children, six of whom survived to adulthood, including Sir Watkin Williams-Wynn, 5th Baronet and Charles and Henry Williams-Wynn. Upon her husband's death, Lady Williams-Wynn became the sole administrator of his Welsh estates under the terms of his will and functioned as such until her eldest son reached the age of majority.

Lady Charlotte Williams - Wynn died on the 29th September 1832 at Richmond aged 79, wife of Sir Watkins Williams-Wynn, Bart. The Gentleman's Magazine, Volume 102, Part 2; Volume 152, page 389.

[5]Almost certainly Col. John Walsh (1726-1795) who was uncle to Francis Fowke, and the son of Joseph Walsh, Governor of Fort St. George, by his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Neville Muskelyne (1663-1711) of Purton in Wiltshire. Neville Maskelyne, the Royal Astronomer, and his sister, Margaret Maskelyne, who married Robert, 1st Baron Clive, were his first cousins. Like many of his relatives, Walsh entered the service of the East India Company (in 1742) and became paymaster of the troops at Madras. In 1757, Clive appointed Walsh his private secretary and he acted in this capacity throughout the campaign in Bengal of that year. Two years later, Clive commissioned him to return to London and lay before Pitt his project for reorganising the administration of Bengal. In 1771 he bought Warfield Park in Berkshire, with some of the estimated £140,000 that he had brought back from India. See for more details of his life.

[6] David Davies, (1742-1819) Who was appointed Rector of Barkham in Berkshire on the 25th May 1782, two years after this letter was written. He had only been made a Deacon on the 28th April 1782. He had been born in Barbados, and been educated at the Codrington College on that Island. He became a social reformer and undertook a survey of the household incomes of the rural poor, which went on to influence policy.

[7] Dartrey; Probably a reference to Thomas Dawson (1725-1813), who was made Baron Dartrey in 1770, and then given a viscountcy in 1758. This family originally called Dawson had taken estates near Galway in Ireland.

[8] Possibly a reference to a mistress of Colonel Walsh, who never married, but who is known to have had several mistresses.  Was she of a dark brown complexion perhaps?  Very probably, as October was the great month for brewing —that luxurious and substantial branch of rural economy; and many and merry are the songs and stories of "nut-brown October" to " gladden the heart of man," with the soul-stirring influence of its regaling. Hops, too, are generally picked this month.

[9] Warfield Park, home to Colonel Walsh.  See;  The former site of Warfield House appears to be a static caravan park on the outskirts of Bracknell.   Perhaps "now the most forlorn spot on the Globe" once more.

[10] Charlotte's sister Diana Baber ( 1739? -d 1807).

[11] The Revd Euseby Isham (1742-1814) of Lamport in Northamptonshire, who Diana Baber had married in 1773.

[12] Mary Baber (1754-18??) Spinster. Ranelagh Gardens in Chelsea was a pleasure ground built on the site of land secured by the Earl of Ranelagh as security against the funding he was providing to build the adjacent Chelsea Hospital. Ranelagh built himself a substantial house on the land. The loans were not paid off until many years after his death, so the house, which was occupied by William Baber and his wife Margaret was not returned to government until about 1735 when the loan was eventually repaid.

Interior of the Ranelagh Gardens by Canaletto.

[13] Probably a reference to the marriage of Captn Thomas Latham R.N. to Jane Kelsall in. After Thomas Latham's death she remarried Sir Henry Strachey of Sutton Court near Chew Magna in Somerset, in 1770, who had been a colleague of Joseph Fowkes in Madras and elsewhere in India.

[14] Miss Catherine Grenville, youngest sister of Earl Temple, to Mr. Neville, son of Richard Aldworth Neville, Esq; of Billingbeare, Berkshire.  The Annual Register, or a View of the history, politicks and literature of ..., By Robert Dodsley, page 243, published 1781.

[15] Billingbeare, Berkshire.

[16] Admiral Rodney (1718-1792) who had successfully relieved Gibraltar in late January 1780, during the Great Siege having defeated a Spanish fleet the 16th of January 1780 at the Battle of Cape St. Vincent, known as the "Moonlight Battle" because it took place at night.

[17] See




[21] Family Secrets, The Things We Tried to HIde, by Deborah Cohen published 2013. Pages 15 to 20.

[22] J.P. Hoare to F. Fowke, 1786, Mss. Eur. E7, APAC.  See also Claud Alexander to David Anderson, 9 June 1783, Add. Mss. 45424. BL.

[23] Letters to Warren Hastings. BL. Add Man 29144 folio 216.

[24] More usually written Kamaluddin or Kamaluddin Khan today.

No comments: